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2021

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective cellular monolayer unique to the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS), and it mediates the communication of the CNS with the rest of the body by regulating the passage of molecules into the CNS microenvironment. Limitation of passage of substances through the BBB is mainly due to tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) between brain microvascular endothelial cells. The importance of actin filaments and microtubules in establishing and maintaining TJs and AJs has been indicated; however, recent studies have shown that intermediate filaments are also important in the formation and function of cell–cell junctions. The most common intermediate filament protein in endothelial cells is vimentin. Vimentin plays a role in blood–brain barrier permeability in both cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions by affecting the actin and microtubule reorganization and by binding directly to VE-cadherin or integrin proteins. The BBB permeability increases due to the formation of stress fibers and the disruption of VE–cadherin interactions between two neighboring cells in various diseases, disrupting the fiber network of intermediate filament vimentin in different ways. Intermediate filaments may be long ignored key targets in regulation of BBB permeability in health and disease.

2021

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective cellular monolayer unique to the microvasculature of the central nervous system (CNS), and it mediates the communication of the CNS with the rest of the body by regulating the passage of molecules into the CNS microenvironment. Limitation of passage of substances through the BBB is mainly due to tight junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ) between brain microvascular endothelial cells. The importance of actin filaments and microtubules in establishing and maintaining TJs and AJs has been indicated; however, recent studies have shown that intermediate filaments are also important in the formation and function of cell–cell junctions. The most common intermediate filament protein in endothelial cells is vimentin. Vimentin plays a role in blood–brain barrier permeability in both cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions by affecting the actin and microtubule reorganization and by binding directly to VE-cadherin or integrin proteins. The BBB permeability increases due to the formation of stress fibers and the disruption of VE–cadherin interactions between two neighboring cells in various diseases, disrupting the fiber network of intermediate filament vimentin in different ways. Intermediate filaments may be long ignored key targets in regulation of BBB permeability in health and disease.

2021

Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by certain bacteria has the potential to be used in many different areas. Despite its advantageous properties such as high purity, mechanical strength, nanofiber mesh structure, and high-water holding capacity, its production through a biotechnological process prevents it from competing with vegetable cellulose in terms of cost-effectiveness. Therefore, studies associated with BC can be divided in two categories which are development cost effective BC production methods and culture media, and production of high value-added products from BC. In this study, it was aimed to develop a taurine-loaded moisturizing facial mask with antioxidant properties based on BC's high-water retention and chemical retention capacity. BC facial mask samples were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Liquid Chromatography–Mass spectrometry (LC-MS), microbial, and mechanical stability tests. According to our results, produced facial mask samples do not show any cytotoxic effect on neither human keratinocyte (HS2) nor mouse fibroblast (L-929) cell lines, it has high thermal stability which making it suitable for different sterilization techniques including sterilization by heat treatment. Taurine release (over 2µg/ml in 5 min) and microbial stability tests (no bacterial growth observed) of packaged products kept at 40 and 25 °C for 6 months have shown that the product preserves its characteristics for a long time. In conclusion “bacterial cellulose-based facial masks" are suitable for use as a facial mask, and they can be used for moisturizing and antioxidant properties by means of taurine.

2021

Blood-brain barrier (BBB), although very important for protection of brain from major neurotoxins, negatively affects the treatment of central nervous system diseases by limiting the passage of neuropharmaceuticals from blood to the brain. Thus, researchers have to investigate the passage of the produced drug molecules through the BBB before they are introduced to the market. Although these experiments have been traditionally performed on experimental animals, drug permeability tests are now carried out mostly by in vitro BBB models due to ethical problems, differences between species, and expensive and troublesome in vivo test procedures. In this method, we explain how to model and characterize a realistic in vitro BBB model using human derived cells and perform a drug permeability test using this model.

2020

The objective of the study was to produce three-dimensional and porous nanofiber reinforced hydrogel scaffolds that can mimic the hydrated composite structure of the cartilage extracellular matrix. In this regard, wet-electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanofiber reinforced carboxymethyl chitosan-silk fibroin (PNFs/CMCht-SF) hydrogel composite scaffolds that were chemically cross-linked by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) were produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in cartilage regeneration where a three dimensional porous spongy composite scaffold was obtained by the dispersion of wet-electrospun nanofibers within a polymer matrix. All of the produced hydrogel composite scaffolds had an interconnected microporous structure with well-integrated PHBV nanofibers on the pore walls. The scaffold comprising an equal amount of PEGDE and polymer (PNFs/CMCht-SF1:PEGDE1) demonstrated comparable water content (91.4 ± 0.7%), tan δ (0.183 at 1 Hz) and compressive strength (457 ± 85 kPa) values to that of articular cartilage. Besides, based on the histological analysis, this hydrogel composite scaffold supported the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, this hydrogel composite scaffold presented a great promise for cartilage tissue regeneration.

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